Digging Up the Past

Teacher Guide

Activity 1 Archaeology on the Internet

Find out about archaeological surveying by visiting some of the following websites.

York Archaeological Trust
http://www.yorkarchaeology.co.uk/

Salters Horners Advanced Physics
http://www.york.ac.uk/org/seg/salters/physics/

English Heritage
http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/

Secrets of the Norman Invasion
http://www.secretsofthenormaninvasion.com/index.htm

Wroxeter Hinterland Project
http://www.arch-ant.bham.ac.uk/bufau/research/wh/base.html

Other Useful Sites:

Council for British Archaeology
http://www.britarch.ac.uk/

Internet Archaeology magazine
http://intarch.ac.uk/index.html

Time Team homepage
http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/T/timeteam/

GSB Prospection - independent consultancy for geophysics in archaeology
http://www.gsbprospection.com/

BBC microsite
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/archaeology/

Department of Archaeology at Glasgow University
http://www.gla.ac.uk/archaeology/projects/geophysics/index.html

The Division of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences at Bradford University
http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/archsci/subject/archaeo.htm

Activity 11 Kennewick Man

Web links

BBC News Item
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4651831.stm

New Scientist
http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn4666

Activity 17

Applets

Take a look at this applet of a diffraction grating:
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/imageformation/gratingdiffraction/index.html

This applet allows you to change the wavelength of light passing through a slit and see the effect:
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/diffraction/diffractionorders/index.html

Additional sheet 9

Electron microscopes, Electron microscopes information and operation

The links to the microscopes are not obvious. Search for microscopes or follow links to physics games (or go straight to 2nd link below).

Nobel prize site
http://nobelprize.org/index.html
Microscope simulations, information and time line:
http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/microscopes/index.html

World of SEM
Materials Science and Engineering Dept. Iowa State University, USA.
Information about how SEM works, with diagrams and photos. It is at different levels. Start with high school level - go onto college if interested. There is a library of images taken by students.
http://mse.iastate.edu/microscopy/home.html

SEM image gallery
Movie and slide show 'How the SEM works' University of Boston USA (dated - refers to electron gun in your PC monitor, but otherwise good).
http://www.mos.org/sln/SEM/

What are electron microscopes? How do they work? The TEM. The SEM.
The Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA.
Follow the link to 'What are electron microscopes':
http://www.unl.edu/CMRAcfem/

MATTER
University of Liverpool site.
MATTER was set up as a non-profit consortium of UK materials science departments in 1993 to develop and help integrate computer-based learning (CBL) materials into mainstream teaching.
Follow the link to Universities (not 'A' level) resources to find this link:

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM): This is a set of resources designed to accompany an introductory course on transmission electron microscopy. The level is appropriate for students with an understanding of some elementary physics.
http://www.matter.org.uk/

JEOL
A company that designs and makes electron microscopes. Link to the York JEOL nanocentre
http://www.jeol.com/

The Royal Microscopical society
Currently not very useful (autumn 2007), but has 'in the news' and 'events' which may be useful in the future.
http://www.rms.org.uk/index.shtml

Electron microscope simulations

TEM
Information about the TEM, sample preparation and an image gallery (simulator uses Shockwave).
http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/microscopes/tem/index.html

SEM
Virtual SEM simulation
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/electronmicroscopy/magnify1/index.html
Also see the index of virtual microscopes:
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/virtual/virtual.html

Virtual microscope
The following page has a link to a Virtual electron microscope from Discovery Education. Drag specimens under microscope, see electron micrograph and description match with correct entry in a list of specimens. Simple to use.
http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/activities/electronmicroscope/

Use of electron microscopes in archaeological context

Pollen reference library
Includes comparison of advantages and disadvantages of optical and electron microscopy.
http://pollen.usda.gov/index.htm

Micropaleontology
An insight into micropaleontology from the micropaleontological unit at University College London. SEM images of microfossils. The content is advanced, but gives a flavour of how SEM images can be useful in dating. Try looking at diatoms, for example, in the section of images there are many different looking diatoms together with information about the geological time period they are from.
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/index.html

Critical thinking

Critical Thinking in Geology and Archaeology: Interpreting Scanning Electron Microscope Images of a Lithic Tool
http://nagt.org/files/nagt/jge/abstracts/Nicholaysen_v53n2p166.pdf

Bread and beer
Study of bread and beer making in Ancient Egypt using SEM
http://www.ancientgrains.org/samuel1996science.pdf

Physics Education

Special Archaeology issue of the IOP journal Physics Education (Schools access via password)
http://www.iop.org/EJ/toc/0031-9120/39/2

Case studies

Case studies of the use of electron microprobe analysis (a technique combining SEM with X-ray analysis) from University of Minnestoa, USA
http://web.mac.com/elleryfrahm/iWeb/Microprobe/Electron%20Microprobe%20Analysis%20in%20Archaeology/Electron%20Microprobe%
20Analysis%20in%20Archaeology.html

Electron microscope image galleries

Internet microscope
Site for schools from Manchester University and NATEC (Northern Aerospace Technology Exploitation Centre) micrographs and materials analysis.
http://pwatlas.mt.umist.ac.uk/internetmicroscope/index.html

Microangela
Microangela's electron microscope image gallery
http://www5.pbrc.hawaii.edu/microangela/

Bristol University
Images from the Bristol University diamond group
http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/pt/diamond/semfilaments.htm

Activity 30

For an article on the radiocarbon method see:
Dobson, K., 'Radioactive decay', Physics Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp.18-21.

A good World Wide Web site for details on the method and much besides is:
http://wwwhowstuffworks.com/carbon-14.htm

This is a website by Tom Higham from the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the University of Waikato in New Zealand:
http://www.c14dating.com/

For more information on the calibration of radiocarbon dates, see the website of the Research laboratory for archaeology and the history of art at the University of Oxford:
http://www.rlaha.ox.ac.uk/C/index_C.php?group=C

Find out more about Dendrochronology at these websites:

The Oxford Dendrochronology Laboratory
http://www.dendrochronology.com/

The University of Sheffield Dendrochronology Laboratory
http://www.shef.ac.uk/archaeology/research/dendrochronology

Activity 32 Piltdown Man
Use the Internet to find out more about the Piltdown Man hoax. Find out which dating techniques were used and what they revealed, then summarise the scientific evidence that led to Piltdown Man being declared a hoax.
Use the Natural History Museum website to study more about the history of Piltdown Man http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/life/human-origins/piltdown-man/

Further supporting material can be found from the following sites:

BBC
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/03/piltdown_man/html/default.stm

The Unnatural Museum
http://www.unmuseum.org/piltdown.htm

Activity 35 Funding for research
Look at the guidance for referees given by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and discuss the advantages of this peer review process. Are there any disadvantages?

The form is available from the
http://www.epsrc.ac.uk/Forms/Reviewers/ResearchProposalRefereesForm.htm or http://www.epsrc.ac.uk/Forms/default.htm. The guidance is on the page with the form.